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Sunday

Clifford Orji - The Lagos “man-eater” - Nigeria Cannibal No1



Of all the mysteries surrounding the capture of the Lagos “man-eater”, the fate of the missing heads is the most disturbing. Clifford Orji was caught frying up human feet and ribs for breakfast under a city flyover. Severed hands lay about the place.
There was even a policeman’s helmet resting on some bones. But days later the skulls of his uncounted victims are still nowhere to be found.

Joseph Bello stumbled on the cannibal as he walked home after a night vigil at a local church. Bello heard a strange song from bushes next to the flyover and noticed a shack built of car tyres. As he moved closer, the odd smell of cooking flesh hit his nostrils. He peeped into the shack. “When I saw human limbs and other parts roasting on the fire I was transfixed,” he said.

Bello alerted other people around the underpass. A crowd gathered and burst into the shack. They were confronted by severed feet and rib cages, and chunks of flesh.

Orji ran. The crowd gave chase.

No one noticed a small, emaciated woman imprisoned inside the tyres of Orji’s shack. It was only after he was caught and dragged back to watch the mob demolish his home that Awawu Lawal was discovered awaiting her turn on the menu. The sight of the filthy, starving woman drove the crowd wild. They beat her captor until the police arrived. Lawal died several days later after falling into a coma.

The crowd then turned their attention to a man they knew to be Orji’s friend, Tahiru Aliyu. He lived nearby. The mob tore his shack down too, and found a 4m pit underneath where some of the victims were kept before they were killed and cooked.

Orji, who is in his 30s, was sometimes seen wandering naked or chasing complete strangers, ranting at them and waving a stick. Despite his thick matted hair and filthy clothes he managed to convince some people that he was a traditional healer, which may be how he lured his victims.

The cannibal told the police he would entrance women by blowing on their foreheads and they would then follow him back to the underpass. “I will have a sexual affair with her to a state of coma before we slaughter her and roast,” he said. “I am not alone. I have between four and 10 people. They take their own parts and go while I wait for another `meat’.”

Orji’s statement to the police has fueled speculation that he was butchering his victims for more than his own consumption. People in the area said they regularly saw upmarket cars stopping beneath the flyover. To some it explains why none of the victims heads have been found.

In Nigeria there is a discreet trade in body parts for religious or medicinal ceremonies. The case has disturbing echoes of earlier killings when a man called Innocent Ikeanyanwu was discovered with the head of a 10-year-old boy.


In police detention he said he had been regularly shipping severed heads to some highly placed Nigerians for ancient rituals. But before he could name names, Ikeanyanwu died in custody of “cardiac arrest”.

A fortnight after the arrest of Orji and his partner, the flyover has become a tourist site. Lagosians are selling pictures of the human remains on the grills and calendars of the cannibal and his friend. Orji is confined to the Yaba Psychiatric hospital. The police are suspicious of the claim he is insane in part because he told them he was “mad”.

Alleged cannibal Clifford Orji has died in Kirikiri Maximum Prison after being behind bars for 13 years. Clifford Orji died on Friday 17th August 2012. The cause of his death is yet to be known as autopsy is being performed.

#historianfacts





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Today muslim all over the world remember the Second Muslim Caliph Umar_ibn_Al-Khattāb last day on earth



Umar_ibn_Al-Khattāb .The Second Muslim Caliph, Umar played a key role in the expansion of Islam following the death of the prophet Muhammad. Umar was considered a pious Muslim who played a role in compiling the first Quran. As Caliph, he oversaw an expansion of Arab conquests which saw a sustained expansion of Arab rule and the new Muslim religion.

Umar was born c. 585 AD in Mecca, Arabia (now Saudi Arabia). He was an influential member of the Adia Clan of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh – at that time following a polytheistic religion. He was tall, physically strong, a renowned wrestler and fighter. He also was well-educated, the time period, and a skillful orator for A charismatic figure he became an influential person in dealing with local politics and business. In his early days, he worked as a merchant.

Umar was originally one of the bitterest opponents of Muhammad and persecuted the new followers of Islam with cruelty; at the time, he was committed to defending the old traditions of the Quraysh. However, in 616 AD at the age of 39, on his way to murder Muhammad, he underwent a radical transformation after being influenced by his friend and sister who had already converted. After being humbled by their devotion, he became a devoted follower and confidant of the prophet Muhammad.

Umar became influential in helping the new religion of Islam to be accepted by local residents. Umar had the courage to practise the new religious duties openly, without fear of retribution. However, due to ongoing friction with the authorities, in 622, Muhammad took Umar and his followers to Medina where there was greater safety.

Umar played a key role in collecting all the verses of the Qu’ran and having them published in one book. It was Umar who advised Abu Bakr to request Zayd ibn Thabit to compile the Quran into a single book.

After the death of the prophet Muhammad on 8 June 632, there was uncertainty over who would serve as his successor. Umar promptly supported the candidacy of Abu Bakr – a close associate and father-in-law of Muhammad. This helped prevent conflict over who would become leader. Though the decision is viewed negatively in the Shia tradition, who believe Ali ibn Abi Talib (cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad) to be the rightful successor to Muhammad.

After only two years, Abu Bakr died, but Abu Bakr had nominated Umar to be the second Caliph. Umar was Caliph for ten years from 634 to 644. During this time, Umar expanded the area of Arab conquest. Under Umar, the Arab armies took Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and entered Iraq and Iran. In all countries, the Arab armies were successful in creating one of the largest Empires of the time.

A key battle was the Battle of Qadisiya (637) which led to Arab armies defeating the Sassanid Empire of Persia and opening Iraq to the Muslim Arab armies.

As well as being military successful, Umar was successful in cementing the long-term success of the Empire. Arab armies were given strict instruction to allow the native population to continue with their peaceful occupations – so long as they paid tribute to the Empire. They were not forced to convert to the new religion, and the armies lived at a distance from the towns they conquered. Umar promoted out of loyalty, paid officers high salaries and sought to avoid corruption by allowing official complaints to be made against transgressors. Umar himself was known for his simple and austere lifestyle. This was in contrast to his pre-Islam days and also in contrast to the pomp and display many rulers displayed.

He devotedly followed the Muslim religion and, as ruler, was concerned with the well-being of the poor and disadvantaged. At the time, it was the custom to cut off the hands of thieves. However, Umar did not allow this to be carried out because he felt responsible for not being able to provide full employment for his citizens. In the latter part of his rule, he developed a form of the welfare state, which offered aid to both Muslim and non-Muslim poor, elderly and the disabled.

He used his skill as an orator to gain the loyalty of his subjects. Although he was often feared rather than loved. He cultivated the respect and authority of the population.

In 644, during a Hajj to Mecca, Umar was assassinated by stabbing by a Persian slave name Abu Lulu. Umar died on 3 November 644.

#historianfacts

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Sunday

The Aba women riot of 1929




The Women's War, or Aba Women's Riots, was a period of unrest in British Nigeria over November 1929. It was the first major anti-colonial revolt by women in West African.

The Aba Women's War was sparked by a dispute between a woman named Nwanyeruwa and a man, Mark Emereuwa, who was helping to make a census of the people living in the town controlled by the Warrant, Okugo. Nwanyeruwa was of Ngwa ancestry, and had been married in the town of Oloko. In Oloko, the census was related to taxation, and women in the area were worried about who would tax them, especially during the period of hyperinflation in the late 1920s. The financial crash of 1929 impeded women's ability to trade and produce so they sought assurance from the colonial government that they would not to be required to pay taxes. Faced with a political halt, the women settled that they would not pay taxes nor have their property appraised.



On the morning of November 18, Emereuwa arrived at Nwanyereuwa's house and approached Nwanyereuwa, since her husband Ojim, had already died. He told the widow to "count her goats, sheep and people." Since Nwanyereuwa understood this to mean, "How many of these things do you have so we can tax you based on them", she was angry. She replied by saying "Was your widowed mother counted?," meaning "that women don't pay tax in traditional Igbo society." The two exchanged angry words, and Emeruwa grabbed Nwanyeruwa by the throat. Nwanyeruwa went to the town square to discuss the incident with other women who happened to be holding a meeting to discuss the issue of taxing women. Believing they would be taxed, based on Nwanyeruwa's account, the Oloko women invited other women (by sending leaves of palm-oil trees) from other areas in the Bende District, as well as from Umuahia and Ngwa. They gathered nearly 10,000 women who protested at the office of Warrant Chief Okugo, demanding his resignation and calling for a trial.

The Aba women riot of 1929 #wanitaxigo


The Nigerian Western region Wild Wild West known as Operation Wet ti e - How it all started



In fact because of Operation Weti e, some people began to label the people of the Western Region as being violent; they said that we in the West started the culture of violence. And my answer was that the violence did not just arise, it arose after the democratic system had failed. So our people were pushed to the wall. And how did the democratic option fail?

The beginning of the crisis was that Chief Ladoke Akintola, who was then deputy to the Premier of the Old Western Region, Chief Obafemi Awolowo, wanted the Action Group to have an alliance with the Northern People’s Congress. Awolowo and others objected and asked, ‘on what basis would the alliance be based? What is the connection between us that will make us come together? What is the programme of the NPC that is akin to our own and can work together?’ So it was an ideological disagreement. But Akintola and others were more inclined with the idea that the NPC people were in the majority, so let us join them to form the government. Chief Awolowo felt that you would form a government with a party with a programme for the people. The question was: Is the NPC going to implement free education, free health services, integrated rural development and so on? These were the programmes with which the AG had been known. So if you are going to form a government with a party, it has to be with a party with similar programmes; even if not all the programmes, at least one or two.

Those were the arguments. But at that time, there was schism within the AG and there was prejudice against Yoruba people from Ijebu area, who had been pitted against the people of Yoruba land from the upper north like Oyo and others. It was their view that Awolowo was becoming too powerful. And more so, that was the time Awolowo had resigned from his position as the Premier of the Western Region and Akintola had become the Premier. Awolowo had chosen to go to the centre (Federal Government). The crisis went on; then there was crisis in the House of Assembly which was a spillover of the rift in the party. Akintola was then the Premier. The members of the House, who were supporters of Awolowo said to Akintola that ‘well, you can’t hold this view and still be our Premier.’ Then they moved a motion for a vote of no confidence in the Premier, to substitute him with Alhaji Dauda Adegbenro. Akintola had the backing of the Federal Government led by Alhaji Tafawa Balewa. Knowing that the motion might pass, they brought armed security men to the House of Assembly.


When Afenifere (a pan-Yoruba group) and the progressives are now agitating for regionalisation of the police, people do not know what gave birth to it. It was since that time that the Governor or the Premier of a region was head of security by name. It was the Federal Government that was controlling the police force. So the police invaded the parliament on the day that the motion was to be moved. I remember that a man from Ogbomoso that was in support of Akintola, jumped on the table and shouted ‘Fire on the mountain’ the moment the motion for a vote of no confidence in Akintola was moved. The Federal Government had brought security people to surround the parliament. Then the police rushed into the parliament and tear gassed the people.

Were the supporters of Awolowo who had championed the motion arrested?

No! They only tear gassed the place. But the action of the police was uncalled for. That was the genesis of the crisis. That was the time Balewa said law and order had broken down in the Western Region and then declared a State of Emergency. We challenged that declaration. The Chief Judge of the Western Region at that time was a Ghanaian and he was afraid because he was not a native. Justice Adetokunbo Ademola, who was Akintola’s supporter, was the Chief Justice of Nigeria. He asked the Chief Justice of the Western Region to refer the case to the Federal Government if he could not handle it. So the judgement was given in favour of Akintola. Then we appealed to the Privy Council that he had no right to do that.

The Privy Council confirmed Adegbenro as Premier. But because Balewa didn’t like that, he refused to accept that judgement. So he passed a law prohibiting appeal from Nigeria from going to the Privy Council and that the final court of appeal should be the Supreme Court. That is the origin of what we have today where the judgement of the Supreme Court is sacrosanct. So that was the situation until 1964 or so. At that time, Akintola had become the premier and Remi Fani-Kayode had become the deputy. An election was coming and their slogan then was: ‘Bi e dibo fun wa, bie e dibo fun wa, ati wole’, which means whether you vote for us or don’t vote for us, we have won. When the result was declared, they won and the people revolted against this. So that was the beginning of the crisis. It was a reaction to the rigging of the election.

This was part of  an interview withChief Ayo Adebanjo,an old politician who played active politics in the period, takes GBENRO ADEOYE through the cause of the crisis Published Inside Punch of July 23, 2016

The Nigerian Western region Wild Wild West known as Operation Wet ti e - How it all started #wanitaxigo


Saturday

Awolowo v. Shagari 1979 case #wanitaxigo


How Nigeria lost Let. Col. Fajuyi and General Aguiyi Ironsi in a rare circumstances #wanitaxigo


Awolowo v. Shagari 1979 case





This has to be the world worst election malpractice in the history of democracy where one vote equal 19. Chief Obafemi Awolowo (a lawyer, state man, former minister and former premier, among several attributes to his name and stance) Versus Alhaji Shehu Shagari (an elementary school head teacher) who was unknown to nobody across the country. But given the political atmosphere in Nigeria, it was evident that the president (Olusegun Obasanjo) found it paramount to appease the people of the northern part of the country (where Shehu Shagari was from) by replacing the former assassinated president (Murhitala Mohammad), a northerner whose presidency was short lived by coup plotters, though his lack of proper security detail can be argued contributed immensely to the successful coup that took him out.

Awolowo won the election and this fact affirms that Nigeria as a country was a risk that was validated by the amalgamation of 1914 that merged several tribes into one without their will. These tribes have totally different personalities, cultures, beliefs but the supreme leadership was trusted with a northerner president (Tafawa Balewa) whose participation on the national stage during the fight for independence was insignificant in comparison to several leaders from the west, east and south - the likes of Awolowo, Azikwe to name a few. Not withstanding, the real issue shouldn't have been who the British left power with but how some Nigerians think the decision was not based on merit. This merit wouldn't have been questionable if all the tribes believed, trusted, respected one another and further believed to have the interests of one another. So, this popular grievance was sealed by a government overthrow led by Chukwuma Kaduna Ezeogwu, an easterner military officer.

The court had the opinion that that " Sheu Shagari won two-third of the total votes cast, having polled a total votes of 16.8 millions with 11.9 millions votes ahead of Obafemi Awolowo who polled a total votes of 4.9 millions.
Court membership
Judges sitting
Atanda Fatai Williams
Mohammed Bello
Kayode Eso, Mohammed Uwais
Andrews Otutu Obaseki
Ayo Gabriel Irikefe
Chike Idigbe
Case opinions
Decision by Kayode Eso
Dissent Kayode Eso


How Nigeria lost Let. Col. Fajuyi and General Aguiyi Ironsi in a rare circumstances




Lt.Col. Adekunle Fajuyi was appointed the military governor of Western Region on 18 January 1966 ,displayed his gallantry and altruism on 29 July 1966. The Head of State, General Aguiyi Ironsi the incumbent Nigeria  head of state, visited Ibadan to address a conference of traditional rulers.
 At 4 am, soldiers, led by Theophilus Danjuma and Joe Garba, drove into Government House, Agodi, Ibadan, their eyes blood shot, their mustaches twitching malevolently. Their mission was to kidnap and kill Ironsi in a reprisal coup.


As history would record the truth,a wine tapper was watching the hideous drama unfolding in the bush under his palm tree. As the desperate soldiers would make to shoot Ironsi, Fajuyi would rush between them and the victim, his hands spread in a you-cannot-kill-my-guest or boss fashion. He repeated the intervention many times so much that the killers were frustrated and angrily pumped hot bullets into the two hostages. And Fajuyi died a hero, a true friend, great officer and patriot.

Palmwine Guitar and Highlife was the earliest music style in Nigera and west Africa


The palmwine Guiter is the most popular music style in Nigeria and west Africa in the 1920sIn Nigeria, two exceptional guitarists emerged in the late 1940s and early 1950s, playing a pure form of classic Palmwine Guitar. Ambrose Adekoya Campbell and Julius Araba gained superstar status - at least in the old Colony of Lagos. Campbell was a member of the legendary Lagos Jolly Orchestra, a multi-ethnic band consisting of Yoruba, Ghanaian and Kru (Liberian) musicians, including the legendary piccolo player known as Piccolo Pete. Also in Nigeria, the Three Night Wizards, led by Israel Njemanze, recorded hit after hit using a Calypso-influenced style of Palmwine Guitar and singing in Igbo and English.







A Short History of the

 Palmwine Guitar

Origins

The Palmwine Guitar sound is a distinctive hybrid folk sound that originated in West Africa at the turn of the 20th century. The exact location from which it originated is still unclear, however what is certain is that it was prevalent along the West African coast. Portuguese, Spanish and Caribbean sailors whose merchant ships docked at the ports of Freetown (Sierra Leone), Lagos (Nigeria), Monrovia (Liberia) and Accra or Tema (Ghana) lent their guitars and style to their African shipmates, who formulated a unique new style that fused native rhythms with the Latin styles bequeathed by their benefactors - the result being an expressive, melodious guitar fusion.

The early African guitar pioneers played in an era before iPods or Walkmans. They played on ships in their spare time to entertain themselves - the output often raw and rudimentary. Nevertheless, a revolution was taking place. The guitars were often played to accompany native vocal renditions, varied in their content but often centred on themes of love and peace, praise singing, native wisdom, personal angst, satire and social commentary.
As time went on, the guitar moved away from being the exclusive domain of African sailors and the more adventurous musicians in port cities, and into the hands of the general populace. Until then, West African musicians had generally played traditional forms of music (using traditional instruments) at funerals, weddings and religious festivals and to entertain royalty in court. Western music had also already been played in West Africa, especially by Europeans and educated West Africans. This was largely in form of classical music. For instance, Lagos hosted a Handel Festival in 1888, organised by the Yoruba musicologist Professor R.A. Coker, while nationalist figure Herbert Macaulay organised classical concerts in the late 1890s. However, by the early 1920s, with the popular usage of the guitar by indigenous musicians, a new form of musical expression emerged in urban centres, occupying a social space that merged both western musical forms and indigenous traditional music. These guitarists played at social functions for the new urban elite (the native professional class of lawyers, doctors, engineers and businessmen), who demanded the best musical entertainment, ranging from classical pianists to this emerging group of modern musicians.

At the lower end of the social ladder were the bards and minstrels who would perform at local bars and houses in the evening, asking for a few pennies for their troubles. Their guitar heroics offered accompaniment to tales of joy and pain - and praise singing of their ‘clients’. Often walking several miles on this beat (a practice that continues today), these guitarists would move around solo or accompanied by native drummers, thumb pianists or a variety of other traditional instruments. For example, the famous Nigerian minstrel Irewolede Denge would walk through the old city of Lagos in the late 1910s and early 1920s, stopping at the famous Water House (home of the Afro-Brazilian millionaire Candido Da Rocha), to deliver a praise singing rendition for which he would be assured of at least a couple of pennies. He would then end his journey in Old Yaba in the Lagos Mainland - a distance of about 9 miles. In this way, minstrels would often play at palmwine bars all along the West African coast.

Palmwine, by the way, is a sweet, tangy, mildly intoxicating drink that has been popular in West Africa (as well as Asia) for many generations. It tapped from the bark of the palm tree, yeast-fermented for a few days and served straight from the tree in calabashes (gourds). The particular musical style that emerged in the bars where the drink was enjoyed became known as the Palmwine Guitar.



The Rise of Palmwine Guitar
The Palmwine Guitar style evolved over the years and fused with various other musical forms, specifically West African vocals and rhythms and Latin and Calypso melodies. The explosion of the Palmwine Guitar into popular culture was heralded by the first series of recordings of West African popular music, between 1925 and 1928, by RCA-Victor Records, under its specialist Zonophone sub-label. The genesis for these recordings was that immediately after the First World War (1914-1918), a significant African immigrant community had settled in the port cities of Britain, especially London, Liverpool and Bristol. These were mostly former dockworkers and labourers who had served the colonial War effort and remained behind afterwards. The Zonophone label therefore sought to service the entertainment needs of this potential market with recordings by West African musicians.


These were not the first West African popular music recordings, however. Already by 1922, Rev. J.J. Ransome-Kuti had recorded an album of choral hymns in Yoruba. The first set of popular music recordings consisted of performers like Nigerian lawyer Oladipo Solanke, Afro-Brazilian musician Justus Domingo (in 1925), Ghanaians George Williams Aingo and Nicholas Van Heer, and the duo of Frank Essien and Edmund Tagoe between 1927 and 1928.

The styles played by these pioneer West African recording artists spanned from the furious Charleston guitar of the talented Tagoe to the more gentle Dixie-variant of Domingo. However, none of these embodied the classical Palmwine Guitar format - until the historic recording by the legendary Ghanaian group, the Kumasi Trio, led by Kwame Asare (aka Jacob Sam). This group recorded what could be described as the first Palmwine Guitar (or indeed Highlife) album from a live performance at London’s Kingsway Hall. Ghanaian guitarists were largely responsible for the creation of the classic styles of Palmwine Guitar, the most notable of which include the ‘Yaa Amponsah’ style made popular by the Kumasi Trio on its 1928 recordings, as well the variant Latin-influenced ‘Dagomba’ style and the ‘Native style’, a 6/8 progression, which was also first recorded by the Kumasi Trio in 1928.
A succession of Palmwine Guitar specialists was to emerge all along the West African coast over the next three decades. Notables names include Kwaa Mensah (Asare’s nephew), Nigerian musicians Irewolede Denge, Tunde King and Ayinde Bakare, and Ebenezer Calendar and Francis McFoy (aka Famous Scrubbs) from Sierra Leone, among many others. These gentlemen experimented with a variety of genres - Calendar and McFoy with calypso, while King and Bakare refined the Ghanaian ‘Dagomba’ sound with a stronger Latin accent, also introducing the electric guitar in the late 1930s and early 1940s.
It’s important to mention that at the same time in Central Africa (Congo to be precise), Joseph Wendo, using a similar format, recorded his legendary hit ‘Marie Louise’, which gave rise to the Rumba-Soukous genre.

In Nigeria, two exceptional guitarists emerged in the late 1940s and early 1950s, playing a pure form of classic Palmwine Guitar. Ambrose Adekoya Campbell and Julius Araba gained superstar status - at least in the old Colony of Lagos. Campbell was a member of the legendary Lagos Jolly Orchestra, a multi-ethnic band consisting of Yoruba, Ghanaian and Kru (Liberian) musicians, including the legendary piccolo player known as Piccolo Pete. Also in Nigeria, the Three Night Wizards, led by Israel Njemanze, recorded hit after hit using a Calypso-influenced style of Palmwine Guitar and singing in Igbo and English.
The late 1950s and 1960s saw another wave of Palmwine Guitar heroes all across the sub-continent. These include Fatai Rolling Dollar in Nigeria to Soliman E. Rogie in Sierra Leone, who had a massive hit with ‘My Lovely Elizabeth’, widely regarded as the biggest-selling Palmwine Guitar track in history. From Ghana came Thomas Osei Ampomah (of T.O. Jazz), as well as one of the most influential Palmwine Guitar exponents of recent times, Daniel Amponsah (aka Koo Nimo). Other stars include Okonkwo Asaa (aka Seven-Seven), John Ikediala and Celestine ‘Daddy’ Obiakor from the east of Nigeria.

Palmwine Guitar and Highlife
The advanced template of this hybrid became popularly known as Highlife, in turn an alloy of Big Band Jazz and the Palmwine Guitar fusion, typically boasting large brass and rhythm sections and clearly targeted to an elite African audience. One of the earliest superstars of this genre was the Ghanaian tenor saxman, E.T. Mensah and his Tempos Band, formed in the 1930s, whose popularity stretched far beyond Ghana. Highlife Music erupted all over West Africa, with bands emerging all over the sub-continent, including the likes of Bobby Benson, Victor Olaiya, Stephen Amaechi, E.C. Arinze, The Nigeria Police Band, Duke Onyina and his band, King Bruce, the Ramblers Dance Band and many more. Over the years highlife bands have evolved in many different directions. However, the guitar element remains constant, with the rudimentary influence of the Palmwine Guitar still recognisable, an enduring reminder of this melodic style of music.

In conclusion, the Palmwine Guitar is an extremely important part of the heritage of West Africa and part of the common musical currency of all of its people - despite differences in their subjective histories. Tribute must therefore be paid to the old masters of this phenomenal institution and indeed to the modern exponents who have sustained its pure format and taken the genre to another level - young masters like Oscar Elimbi N’Guime, Abdul Teejay, Piper Jay, Joe Mbule, Rene Lendjou, Kari Bannerman, Phil Dawson and several others. Through them, the Palmwine Guitar lives on - and so it should!


The Usman Dan Fodio Jihad of 1804 how it affects North-Middle Belt




 The dichotomy between Muslims and non-Muslims, noticed considerably in
the North-Middle Belt relations may be said to have its roots in the Jihad of
1804. Its negative impact on inter-group relations in Nigeria continues to
linger on.  The middle belt region suffered a great  deal  of depopulation occasioned 
by incessant slave raids by the emirates of Sokoto caliphate. 




It is informative to mention here that payment of tributes in 
form of slaves was part of the obligations of the emirs to the caliph. The non-
Muslim people of the middle-belt were in essence under constant attack as
enslavement of fellow Muslims was forbidden. Noticeable depopulation and
displacement became the lot of these peoples. This is said to be responsible
for the uneasy peace that reigns between the North and Middle Belt regions
of Nigeria today




Chief Festus Sam Okotie-Eboh (1919-1966) was a prominent and most flamboyant Nigerian politician



Critics of Chief Okotie-Eboh aver that he was "a thief and corrupt public officer." Some even described him as a first most corrupt Nigerian minister of state hence why was killed in the first 1966 military takeover. However, evidence shows that the man was very rich before he assumed public office and that he was a "victim of circumstances." How truthful is this of Okotie-  Eboh ?

When Major Nzeogwu was to take his coup in 1966, among those pencilled down to be killed was a Niger-Delta business colossus. Along with Ahmadu Bello, Tafawa Belewa, Akintola, chief Okotie-Eboh was killed. Rumours say bullets could not penetrate his skin so they tied him to a car and dragged him. Reports of those who saw his body say he was mangled beyond recognition. It is said that his grave in Okotie-Eboh baptist Church which borders Zik Grammar School is still empty of his remains.

https://www.nairaland.com/2378116/chief-festus-sam-okotie-eboh-nigeria


On wealth, they said he was richer than his political party before he became a party wheel horse or minister, that it was the great Zik who chose him to represent the NCNC in the cabinet against the ambitions of men like Sir Ojukwu, incidentally one of Zik’s close friends. They implied he was too wealthy for the corrupting wiles of office. He had built schools and other institutions.https://samomatseye.com/memory-without-memorial/










Palmwine Guitar and Highlife was the earliest music style in Nigera and west Africa #wanitaxigo


The Usman Dan Fodio Jihad of 1804 how it affects North-Middle Belt #wanitaxigo


Chief Festus Sam Okotie-Eboh (1919-1966) was a prominent and most flamboyant Nigerian politician #wanitaxigo


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